chitosan  chitan

http://www.lipidyne.com/scb.htm

Below are references and excerpts from the
 scientific literature on Chitosan.  LIPIDYNE
 contains 200mg of Chitosan per capsule.
  LIPIDYNE has been specially formulated to aid in
 weight loss.  Chitosan comes in other formulations
 that are used as the literature outlines.  LIPIDYNE
 should be used only for weight loss!  Consult your
 doctor if you desire more information on the uses of
 Chitosan for diseases and afflictions as discussed in
 the literature below.   This information is mostly
 technical and is taken from scientific journals etc.
 

                       The shellfish industry has produced
                       waste shell over the centuries. But,
                       never before have the production and
                       harvesting techniques been so
                       efficient as to produce tremendous
                       localised quantities of waste shell.
                       Thus the potential enviromental
                       problems faced over the past twenty
                       years has resulted in efforts to find
                       uses for these materials. Coupled
                       with the above problem has been a
                       growing interest in natural materials.
 Chitin is an interesting biopolymer which could have many
 market applications. Unfortunately the cost of conversion is so
 expensive that normal commodity applications are more
 economically handled by other materials.  This situation has
 forced potential suppliers of chitin products to look at specialty
 niches where chitin's unique porperties are economically viable.

 For centuries, chitin in various forms had been known for its
 versatility and safety.  Pacific Northwest native tribes had for
 generations used ground crab shells in wound dressings. Today
 hospitals use chitosin-bearing bandages on burn patients to
 prevent scarring. The uses in agriculture, pulp and paper, waste
 water treatment and health foods alone are enormous. Chitosan is
 used in nutritional supplements where it ties up fats and prevents
 their digestion.

 "A polymer is a molecule whose units are repeated and join in a
 chain. Chitosan is a very long chain with electrical charges,
 which act like hooks, scattered along its length. These "hooks"
 gather up and bind to suspended fats and cholesterol in the
 stomach and intestines and make these "lipids" unavailable for
 absorption by the body."   F. Lee Johnson

 Chitin was first isolated in 1811 by the French pharmacist
 Braconnot. Emil Fischer synthesized glucosamine (1903), Paul
 Karrer used 'Schneckensaft' to degrade chitin (1929), and Walter
 N. Haworth established the absolute configuration of
 glucosamine (1939) (note: all three are Nobel laureates).
 However, chitin was considered an exotic playground for
 biologists until a book, 'Chitin', was published in 1977 by
 Riccardo A.A. Muzzarelli. Since then, the scientific and
 commercial 'chitin community' has grown rapidly.

 Biological activities of chitin and chitosan include
 wound-healing acceleration and tissue regeneration, most likely
 mediated by chito-oligosaccharides. An ever-increasing diverstiy
 of interactions between micro-organisms, plants, insects, and
 vertebrates is unravelling: chito-oligosaccharides activate
 macrophages, act as elicitors of plant defense, and are structural
 units of Rhizobium node factors, Evidence is accumulating that
 chito-oligosaccharides possess morphogenetic functions in
 ontogenesis of vertebrates and act as primers of hyaluronate
 biosynthesis. The enzymology of chitinases and chitosanases is
 only in its beginnings, and the biotechnology of chitin/chitosan
 processing is one of the most promising areas of research in
 coming years.

 Modified chitins have been administered to humans in the form of
 dressings for wounded soft tissues and bone tissues, in
 anticholesterolemic dietary food, and in items for the controlled
 delivery of drugs. Uses of chitin/chitosan are detailed in Table 1.

 Table 1.  Available chitin-based products for wound
 dressings

      (sterilised by ethylene oxide or gamma irradiation)
 Products:

 Regenerated chitin powders
 Chitin non-woven fabric
 Porous beads
 Lyophilised soft fleeces
 Gel-forming lyophilised soft fleeces
 Gel-forming lyophilised soft gauze
 Laminated sheets
 Transparent films
 Microspheres

 Associations with:

 Cellulose
 Collagen
 Keratin
 Chondroitin sulphate
 Polyester
 Poly(tetrafluorourethylene)
 Polyurethane
 Polyethylene terephthalate
 
 
 

 In addition, scientists have reported that chitins show
 antibacterial, antimetastatic, antiuricemic, antiosteoporotic and
 immunoadjuvant activities, indicating a large general potential of
 the polysaccharide in alleviating diseases, preventing sickness
 and contributing to good health [2,7].

 Biomedical applications:

 Weight loss and weight control
     Chitosan exhibits anticholesterolemic, antiulcer and
     antiuricemic properties when orally administered.  These
     properties are related to its capacity to bind fatty acids, bile
     acids, phospholipids, and uric acid.  In the presence of fatty
     acids, chitosan can form complex salts that bind
     triglycerides, fatty and bile acids, cholesterol and other
     sterols, and a large portion of these bound compounds are
     excreted [70,71].  However, chitosan does not depress
     serum iron and haemoglobin levels, nor does it
     overstimulate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase.  It
     also does not alter the human intestinal microbiota, but
     lowers the putrefaction metabolites.  Data on the dietary
     effects of chitosan in adult men have been published [72].
     The results indicate a favourable effect with a very low
     dose within a short period [73,74].

 Skin substitutes
     Chitosan is indispensable in the production of skin
     substitutes.  Not only for providing insolubility, but also for
     increasing the production of collagen and regulatory factors
     by fibroblasts.  The addition of chitosan also increases the
     cytotoxicity levels, and provides good adhesion (better than
     collagen alone) without proliferation problems.  The dermal
     substitute does not cause any antigenic incompatibility and
     allows controlled vascularisation and fibroblastic
     colonisation, resulting in an organised matrix and limited
     formation of granulation and hypertrophic scar [46,53,54].

 Nerve regeneration
     Chitosan is suitable as a matrix for anchorage-dependent
     mammalian cell encapsulation [55]. For application in
     neurosurgery, macrocapsules and hollow fibres made of
     polyacrylonitrile-polyvinyl chloride (PAN-PVC) were
     filled with a PC12 cell suspension in a chitosan solution.
     The chitosan prevents extensive cell clumping and necrosis.
       When microencapsulated with chitosan, the PC12 cells
     attached successfully to the precipitated chitosan and
     respond to exposure to Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) by
     extending neuritis.  Differentiation of neuronal cells was
     also suported by the chitosan matrix.

 Meniscus regeneration
     Chitosan has also been used to assist the spontaneous tissue
     repair of the meniscus, which is usually extremely difficult.
     Its initail angiogenetic action appears to be effective enough
     to stimulate the repair of the menicus by providing the latter
     with the necessary tissue elements and humoral factors [56]

 Regeneration of bone tissue
     Several studies dealing with the reconstruction of the
     periodontal tissue with chitosan were a prelude to the
     discovery of the osteoinductive properties of chitosan
     [57,58]. Surgical wounds from wisdom tooth avulsions
     were treated with freeze-dried methlpyrrolikinone chitosan,
     which promoted bone regeneration.

     The existence of osteoprogenitor (bone producing) cells in
     the wound site offers the possibility of regenerating the
     periodontal, peri-implant and alveolar ridge bone tissue
     simply with the aid of chemical mediators from chitosan. It
     has been found that the amount of bone forming colonies is
     almost doubled in the presence of chitosan.  Chitosan also
     stimulates the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells,
     thereby facilitating the formation of bone [60].

     The pattern of bone regeneration has been studied in an
     osteoporotic experimental model with Bone Morphogenetic
     Protein (BMP) linked to chitosan. Biodegradation of
     chitosan leads to a controlled release of BMP, providing a
     synergetic effect on bone formation. Morphometric and
     morphological analyses show that bone tissue regeneration
     in a surgical bone defect is improved using this special
     chitosan. This important result also proves the validity of a
     biochemical approach to the therapeutical correction of
     various afflictions in the elderly [65].

 Anti-inflammatory drug delivery
     Indomethacin, an anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits
     enzymes involved in prostaglandin systhesis, has been
     administered per os to male humans in the form of
     rapid-release granules and slow-release beads, prepared
     from chitosans of defined molecular mass [66].

     N-Acetylglucosamine (Chitin) itself is also an
     anti-inflammatory drug; it is synthesised in the human body
     from glucose ande incorporated into glycosaminoglycans
     and clycoproteins.  It has been administered to human
     volunteers by intravehous, intramuscular and oral routes for
     pharmocokinetic studies [68].  It was found that
     N-acetylglucosamine diffuses very rapidly in most tissues
     and organs, even after oral administration, and accumulates
     in the articular tissue and bone [68,69].
 
 

 References

   2.
      R.A.A. Muzzarelli, in Polymeric Biomaterials (S.
      Dumitriu, ed.) (1993) Marcel Dekker, New York.
   7.
      N. Mita, T. Asano and K. Mizuochi, JP 02,311,421, CA
      114:150221 (1989).
  56.
      R.A.A. Muzzarelli, V. Bicchiega, G. Biagini, A.
      Pugnaloni and R. Rizzoli, J. Bioact. Compat. Polym. 7
      (1992) 130-148.
  57.
      R.A.A. Muzzarelli, G. Biagini, A. Pugnaloni, O. Filippini,
      V. Baldassarre, C. Castaldini and C. Rizzoli,
      Biomaterials 10 (1989) 598-603.
  58.
      G. Roussille and B. Barthet, J. Mat. Sci. Mater. Med. 2
      (1991) 208-211.
  60.
      P.R. Klokkevold, L. Vandemark, E.B. Kennedy and G.W.
      Bernard, J. Periodontol, 67 (1996) 1170-1177.
  65.
      G. Biagini, R.A.A. Muzzarelli, O. Talassi, R. Giardino,
      M. Mattioli Belmonte and C. Castaldini, J. Bioact. Comp.
      Polym., 12 (1997) 6-14.
  66.
      M. Otagiri, T. Imai and S. Shirachi, JP 05 17,371, CA
      118:198238 (1993).
  68.
      I. Setnitkar, R. Palumbo, S. Canali and G. Zanolo,
      Arnzeim Forsh. Drug Res. 43 (1993) 1109-1113.
  69.
      M.F. McCarty, Med. Hypoth. 42 (1994) 323-327.
  70.
      Unconventional Sources of Dietary Fiber (I. Furda, ed.)
      (1983) ACS, Washington DC.
  71.
      J.L. Nauss, J.L. Thompson and J. Nagyvary, Lipids 18
      (1993) 714-719.
  72.
      B.E. Hakala, C. White and A.D. Fecklies, J. Biol. Chem.
      268 (1993) 25803-25810.
  73.
      Y. Maezaki, K. Tsuji and K. Nakagawa, Biosc. Biotech.
      Biochem, 57 (1993) 1439-1444.
  74.
      R.A.A. Muzzarelli, Carbohydr. Polym. 29 (1996)
      309-316.
 

 The Chitosan Molecule; a polysaccharide very similar to
 cellulose.
 
 

 Some Properties of Chitin & Chitosan:

  Chitin
 

                The natural structural component of shellfish
                such as crab, shrimp and lobster
                The most plentiful natural polymer next to
                cellulose
                Biodegradable and nontoxic
  Chitosan-Polyamine
 

                High molecular weight
                Soluble in most dilute acidic solutions
                A polyamine
                Biodegradable and nontoxic
                Insoluble at pH's above 6.5
  Chitosan-Cationic
 

                High charge density (positive)
                Compatible with strong cationics
                Forms strong, clear films
                Forms clear aqueous solutions with excellent
                heat and shear stability
                Excellent flocculent
                Forms gels with multivalent anions
                Chelates metal ions
                Biodegradable and nontoxic
                Low to extra-high viscosity grades available

                     All Text & Graphics
             © Copyright GIACOM Incorporated 1998
                    All Rights Reserved

http://www.fatblockerdiet.com/FBinfo2.html
 

                    About Chitosan
                    Each capsule of Chitosan Fat Blocker Diet contains:
                     Chitosan
                                        400 mg.
                     Potassium
                                         33 mg.
                     Buffered Vitamin C
                                         20 mg.
 
 

 Directions:
 As a dietary supplement take 1-2 capsules 30 minutes prior to lunch
 and 1-2 capsules prior to dinner with 8 oz. of liquid.
 You should not take Chitosan if you have any kind of shellfish
 allergy, pregnant or breastfeeding.
 

Frequently Asked Questions

      What is CHITOSAN? (Ki-to-san)
      Chitosan is a natural product derived from chitin,
      a polysaccharide found in the exoskeleton of
      shellfish, like shrimp, crawfish, and lobster.
      Chitosan is a naturally occurring substance
      that is similar to cellulose.   It has the ability to
      significantly bind fat acting like a "fat sponge"
      in the digestive tract.

      What are the side effects
      You should not take this product if you are allergic to
      shellfish or if you are a pregnant or lactating woman or
      anyone taking medications should consult a
      health care professional before taking this
      product.  Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K,
      essential fatty acids, as well as medications
      should be taken 4 hours before or after
      ingesting Chitosan.

      How do I take it?
      You should take 1-2 capsules, 30 minutes before lunch, and 1-2
      capsules before dinner.  It is important to drink at least 8 ounces
      of liquid with this supplement.

      If I am taking Chitosan, what other nutritional supplements
      should I take?
      Virtually all nutritional supplements are fine to take with
      Chitosan.  You should, however, add 400 I.U. of Vitamin E taken
      4 hours prior to or 4 hours after taking Chitosan.

      What's in the Fat Blocker Diet Supplement?
      Each capsule contains 400 mg. Chitosan, 33 mg. Potassium
      and 20 mg. of Buffered Vitamin C.

      How much weight can I expect to lose?
      Naturally, weight loss will vary depending upon your metabolism
      and dietary and exercise habits.  But generally speaking, people
      have reported anywhere from 5-15 pounds per month.

      Do I have to exercise?
      Medical doctors tell us that exercise is beneficial for overall
      health.

      Is there any age restrictions on taking Chitosan?
      If you are under 18 years of age, you should consult your
      physician.

      I have allergies, is there anything in Chitosan that will
      effect me?
      Chitosan is made of shellfish.  If you have known
      allergies to shellfish, then it should not be
      taken.  Also, it contains potassium and buffered
      Vitamin C.  If any of these ingredients are
      known to cause you allergies, please do not
      take this product.

      Is it safe?
      Chitosan and the other ingredients in this
      formula have been proven to be safe if you
      follow the suggested use and read all warning
      labels.   It is always advisable to check with
      your health care professional before you start
      any type of weight loss program.

      Is it safe for seniors?
      Always check with your doctor for approval.