Below are references and excerpts from the
scientific literature on Chitosan. LIPIDYNE
contains 200mg of Chitosan per capsule.
LIPIDYNE has been specially formulated to aid in
weight loss. Chitosan comes in other formulations
that are used as the literature outlines. LIPIDYNE
should be used only for weight loss! Consult your
doctor if you desire more information on the uses of
Chitosan for diseases and afflictions as discussed in
the literature below. This information is mostly
technical and is taken from scientific journals etc.
The shellfish industry has produced
waste shell over the centuries. But,
never before have the production and
harvesting techniques been so
efficient as to produce tremendous
localised quantities of waste shell.
Thus the potential enviromental
problems faced over the past twenty
years has resulted in efforts to find
uses for these materials. Coupled
with the above problem has been a
growing interest in natural materials.
Chitin is an interesting biopolymer which could have many
market applications. Unfortunately the cost of conversion is so
expensive that normal commodity applications are more
economically handled by other materials. This situation has
forced potential suppliers of chitin products to look at specialty
niches where chitin's unique porperties are economically viable.
For centuries, chitin in various forms had been known for its
versatility and safety. Pacific Northwest native tribes had for
generations used ground crab shells in wound dressings. Today
hospitals use chitosin-bearing bandages on burn patients to
prevent scarring. The uses in agriculture, pulp and paper, waste
water treatment and health foods alone are enormous. Chitosan is
used in nutritional supplements where it ties up fats and prevents
"A polymer is a molecule whose units are repeated and join in
chain. Chitosan is a very long chain with electrical charges,
which act like hooks, scattered along its length. These "hooks"
gather up and bind to suspended fats and cholesterol in the
stomach and intestines and make these "lipids" unavailable for
absorption by the body." F. Lee Johnson
Chitin was first isolated in 1811 by the French pharmacist
Braconnot. Emil Fischer synthesized glucosamine (1903), Paul
Karrer used 'Schneckensaft' to degrade chitin (1929), and Walter
N. Haworth established the absolute configuration of
glucosamine (1939) (note: all three are Nobel laureates).
However, chitin was considered an exotic playground for
biologists until a book, 'Chitin', was published in 1977 by
Riccardo A.A. Muzzarelli. Since then, the scientific and
commercial 'chitin community' has grown rapidly.
Biological activities of chitin and chitosan include
wound-healing acceleration and tissue regeneration, most likely
mediated by chito-oligosaccharides. An ever-increasing diverstiy
of interactions between micro-organisms, plants, insects, and
vertebrates is unravelling: chito-oligosaccharides activate
macrophages, act as elicitors of plant defense, and are structural
units of Rhizobium node factors, Evidence is accumulating that
chito-oligosaccharides possess morphogenetic functions in
ontogenesis of vertebrates and act as primers of hyaluronate
biosynthesis. The enzymology of chitinases and chitosanases is
only in its beginnings, and the biotechnology of chitin/chitosan
processing is one of the most promising areas of research in
Modified chitins have been administered to humans in the form
dressings for wounded soft tissues and bone tissues, in
anticholesterolemic dietary food, and in items for the controlled
delivery of drugs. Uses of chitin/chitosan are detailed in Table 1.
Table 1. Available chitin-based products for wound
(sterilised by ethylene oxide or gamma
Regenerated chitin powders
Chitin non-woven fabric
Lyophilised soft fleeces
Gel-forming lyophilised soft fleeces
Gel-forming lyophilised soft gauze
In addition, scientists have reported that chitins show
antibacterial, antimetastatic, antiuricemic, antiosteoporotic and
immunoadjuvant activities, indicating a large general potential of
the polysaccharide in alleviating diseases, preventing sickness
and contributing to good health [2,7].
Weight loss and weight control
Chitosan exhibits anticholesterolemic, antiulcer and
antiuricemic properties when orally administered. These
properties are related to its capacity to bind fatty acids, bile
acids, phospholipids, and uric acid. In the presence of fatty
acids, chitosan can form complex salts that bind
triglycerides, fatty and bile acids, cholesterol and other
sterols, and a large portion of these bound compounds are
excreted [70,71]. However, chitosan does not depress
serum iron and haemoglobin levels, nor does it
overstimulate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase. It
also does not alter the human intestinal microbiota, but
lowers the putrefaction metabolites. Data on the dietary
effects of chitosan in adult men have been published .
The results indicate a favourable effect with a very low
dose within a short period [73,74].
Chitosan is indispensable in the production of skin
substitutes. Not only for providing insolubility, but also for
increasing the production of collagen and regulatory factors
by fibroblasts. The addition of chitosan also increases the
cytotoxicity levels, and provides good adhesion (better than
collagen alone) without proliferation problems. The dermal
substitute does not cause any antigenic incompatibility and
allows controlled vascularisation and fibroblastic
colonisation, resulting in an organised matrix and limited
formation of granulation and hypertrophic scar [46,53,54].
Chitosan is suitable as a matrix for anchorage-dependent
mammalian cell encapsulation . For application in
neurosurgery, macrocapsules and hollow fibres made of
polyacrylonitrile-polyvinyl chloride (PAN-PVC) were
filled with a PC12 cell suspension in a chitosan solution.
The chitosan prevents extensive cell clumping and necrosis.
When microencapsulated with chitosan, the PC12 cells
attached successfully to the precipitated chitosan and
respond to exposure to Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) by
extending neuritis. Differentiation of neuronal cells was
also suported by the chitosan matrix.
Chitosan has also been used to assist the spontaneous tissue
repair of the meniscus, which is usually extremely difficult.
Its initail angiogenetic action appears to be effective enough
to stimulate the repair of the menicus by providing the latter
with the necessary tissue elements and humoral factors 
Regeneration of bone tissue
Several studies dealing with the reconstruction of the
periodontal tissue with chitosan were a prelude to the
discovery of the osteoinductive properties of chitosan
[57,58]. Surgical wounds from wisdom tooth avulsions
were treated with freeze-dried methlpyrrolikinone chitosan,
which promoted bone regeneration.
The existence of osteoprogenitor (bone producing)
the wound site offers the possibility of regenerating the
periodontal, peri-implant and alveolar ridge bone tissue
simply with the aid of chemical mediators from chitosan. It
has been found that the amount of bone forming colonies is
almost doubled in the presence of chitosan. Chitosan also
stimulates the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells,
thereby facilitating the formation of bone .
The pattern of bone regeneration has been studied
osteoporotic experimental model with Bone Morphogenetic
Protein (BMP) linked to chitosan. Biodegradation of
chitosan leads to a controlled release of BMP, providing a
synergetic effect on bone formation. Morphometric and
morphological analyses show that bone tissue regeneration
in a surgical bone defect is improved using this special
chitosan. This important result also proves the validity of a
biochemical approach to the therapeutical correction of
various afflictions in the elderly .
Anti-inflammatory drug delivery
Indomethacin, an anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits
enzymes involved in prostaglandin systhesis, has been
administered per os to male humans in the form of
rapid-release granules and slow-release beads, prepared
from chitosans of defined molecular mass .
N-Acetylglucosamine (Chitin) itself is also
anti-inflammatory drug; it is synthesised in the human body
from glucose ande incorporated into glycosaminoglycans
and clycoproteins. It has been administered to human
volunteers by intravehous, intramuscular and oral routes for
pharmocokinetic studies . It was found that
N-acetylglucosamine diffuses very rapidly in most tissues
and organs, even after oral administration, and accumulates
in the articular tissue and bone [68,69].
R.A.A. Muzzarelli, in Polymeric Biomaterials (S.
Dumitriu, ed.) (1993) Marcel Dekker, New York.
N. Mita, T. Asano and K. Mizuochi, JP 02,311,421, CA
R.A.A. Muzzarelli, V. Bicchiega, G. Biagini, A.
Pugnaloni and R. Rizzoli, J. Bioact. Compat. Polym. 7
R.A.A. Muzzarelli, G. Biagini, A. Pugnaloni, O. Filippini,
V. Baldassarre, C. Castaldini and C. Rizzoli,
Biomaterials 10 (1989) 598-603.
G. Roussille and B. Barthet, J. Mat. Sci. Mater. Med. 2
P.R. Klokkevold, L. Vandemark, E.B. Kennedy and G.W.
Bernard, J. Periodontol, 67 (1996) 1170-1177.
G. Biagini, R.A.A. Muzzarelli, O. Talassi, R. Giardino,
M. Mattioli Belmonte and C. Castaldini, J. Bioact. Comp.
Polym., 12 (1997) 6-14.
M. Otagiri, T. Imai and S. Shirachi, JP 05 17,371, CA
I. Setnitkar, R. Palumbo, S. Canali and G. Zanolo,
Arnzeim Forsh. Drug Res. 43 (1993) 1109-1113.
M.F. McCarty, Med. Hypoth. 42 (1994) 323-327.
Unconventional Sources of Dietary Fiber (I. Furda, ed.)
(1983) ACS, Washington DC.
J.L. Nauss, J.L. Thompson and J. Nagyvary, Lipids 18
B.E. Hakala, C. White and A.D. Fecklies, J. Biol. Chem.
268 (1993) 25803-25810.
Y. Maezaki, K. Tsuji and K. Nakagawa, Biosc. Biotech.
Biochem, 57 (1993) 1439-1444.
R.A.A. Muzzarelli, Carbohydr. Polym. 29 (1996)
The Chitosan Molecule; a polysaccharide very similar to
Some Properties of Chitin & Chitosan:
The natural structural component of shellfish
such as crab, shrimp and lobster
The most plentiful natural polymer next to
Biodegradable and nontoxic
High molecular weight
Soluble in most dilute acidic solutions
Biodegradable and nontoxic
Insoluble at pH's above 6.5
High charge density (positive)
Compatible with strong cationics
Forms strong, clear films
Forms clear aqueous solutions with excellent
heat and shear stability
Forms gels with multivalent anions
Chelates metal ions
Biodegradable and nontoxic
Low to extra-high viscosity grades available
All Text & Graphics
© Copyright GIACOM Incorporated 1998
All Rights Reserved
Each capsule of Chitosan Fat Blocker Diet contains:
Buffered Vitamin C
As a dietary supplement take 1-2 capsules 30 minutes prior to lunch
and 1-2 capsules prior to dinner with 8 oz. of liquid.
You should not take Chitosan if you have any kind of shellfish
allergy, pregnant or breastfeeding.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is CHITOSAN? (Ki-to-san)
Chitosan is a natural product derived from chitin,
a polysaccharide found in the exoskeleton of
shellfish, like shrimp, crawfish, and lobster.
Chitosan is a naturally occurring substance
that is similar to cellulose. It has the ability to
significantly bind fat acting like a "fat sponge"
in the digestive tract.
What are the side effects
You should not take this product if you are allergic to
shellfish or if you are a pregnant or lactating woman or
anyone taking medications should consult a
health care professional before taking this
product. Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K,
essential fatty acids, as well as medications
should be taken 4 hours before or after
How do I take it?
You should take 1-2 capsules, 30 minutes before lunch, and 1-2
capsules before dinner. It is important to drink at least 8 ounces
of liquid with this supplement.
If I am taking Chitosan, what other nutritional
should I take?
Virtually all nutritional supplements are fine to take with
Chitosan. You should, however, add 400 I.U. of Vitamin E taken
4 hours prior to or 4 hours after taking Chitosan.
What's in the Fat Blocker Diet Supplement?
Each capsule contains 400 mg. Chitosan, 33 mg. Potassium
and 20 mg. of Buffered Vitamin C.
How much weight can I expect to lose?
Naturally, weight loss will vary depending upon your metabolism
and dietary and exercise habits. But generally speaking, people
have reported anywhere from 5-15 pounds per month.
Do I have to exercise?
Medical doctors tell us that exercise is beneficial for overall
Is there any age restrictions on taking
If you are under 18 years of age, you should consult your
I have allergies, is there anything in
Chitosan that will
Chitosan is made of shellfish. If you have known
allergies to shellfish, then it should not be
taken. Also, it contains potassium and buffered
Vitamin C. If any of these ingredients are
known to cause you allergies, please do not
take this product.
Is it safe?
Chitosan and the other ingredients in this
formula have been proven to be safe if you
follow the suggested use and read all warning
labels. It is always advisable to check with
your health care professional before you start
any type of weight loss program.
Is it safe for seniors?
Always check with your doctor for approval.